Ոչ շատ հայտնի, կարևոր և հետաքրքիր պատմական կերպարներ // Bass Reeves

BassReevesBass Reeves was the first African American commissioned to serve as a deputy marshal west of the Mississippi River.

He was born in 1838 as a slave in Crawford County, Arkansas. Reeves grew up in Grayson County, Texas, following the relocation of his owner, William S. Reeves, in 1846. William Reeves was a farmer and politician, Bass took the surname of his owner, like other slaves of the time. His first name came from his grandfather, Basse Washington.

Bass Reeves grew up illiterate and remained illiterate for his entire life. Reports regarding Reeves’s activities and whereabouts during the American Civil War are ultimately unclear, but some accounts claim that when the Civil War began, George Reeves, Bass’ owner, joined the Confederate Army, taking Bass with him.

It is unclear how and exactly when Bass Reeves left his owner but at some point during the Civil War he gained his freedom. Reeves’s family members, however, claimed that at some time between 1861 and 1862 Bass Reeves and his owner had an altercation over a card game. Others believe that Bass heard too much about the “freeing of slaves” and simply ran away. In any event Reeves fled to the Indian Territory where he lived as a fugitive slave among the Creeks and Seminoles.

After being “Freed” by the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 and no longer a fugitive, Reeves left Indian Territory and bought land near Van Buren, Arkansas, where he became a successful farmer and rancher. A year later, he married Nellie Jennie from Texas, and immediately began to have a family. Raising 10 children on their homestead — five girls and five boys, the family lived happily on the farm. During this time, oral history states that Reeves worked as a guide for U.S. government officials interested in traveling through Indian Territory.

On May 10, 1875, President Ulysses S. Grant appointed Isaac C. Parker as the judge for the Federal Western District Court at Fort Smith, Arkansas, a jurisdiction that included the Indian Territory.  Parker, in turn, appointed a U.S. Marshal and authorized him to hire 200 deputies to curb the rampant lawlessness that had terrorized the region.  Because of his knowledge of the area and fluency in the Creek and Seminole languages, Reeves was recruited to work as a deputy U.S. marshal in the Indian Territory.

He was an imposing figure, always riding on a large white stallion, Reeves began to earn a reputation for his courage and success at bringing in or killing many desperadoes of the territory. Always wearing a large hat, Reeves was usually a spiffy dresser, with his boots polished to a gleaming shine. He was known for his politeness and courteous manner. However, when the purpose served him, he was a master of disguises and often utilized aliases.

For the next thirty-two years Bass Reeves brought to justice over 3,000 criminals and killed fourteen outlaws during his years as a marshal, garnering a reputation as one of the most successful lawmen in the Indian Territory.  Among those he captured was Bob Dozier, a murderer and cattle and horse thief who eluded Reeves for several years before being tracked down and killed after refusing to surrender.  He also tracked outlaw Tom Story for five years between 1884 and 1889, finally killing him in a gunfight.

Though Reeves was illiterate it did not harm his effectiveness in bringing back the criminals. Before he headed out, he would have someone read him the warrants and memorize the contents and which warrant was which. When asked to produce the warrant, he never failed to pick out the correct one.

Bass Reeves’s legendary career as a U.S. marshal ended in 1907 when the new state of Oklahoma assumed policing duties over the Indian Territory.  At the age of 69 Reeves became a policeman for the City of Muskogee.  He worked there for two years before failing health forced his retirement.  Bass Reeves died on January 10, 1910 in Muskogee, Oklahoma.

 

Sources:

https://www.britannica.com/biography/Bass-Reeves

https://www.legendsofamerica.com/we-bassreeves/

https://blackpast.org/aaw/reeves-bass-1838-1910

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bass_Reeves

 

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Եզրակացություն

Աշոտ Բլեյանի «Մխիթար Սեբաստացի» կրթահամալիր. ինչպես սկսվեց ամեն ինչ» հարցազրույցը

Ընթերցեցի Աշոտ Բլեյանի «Մխիթար Սեբաստացի» կրթահամալիր. ինչպես սկսվեց ամեն ինչ» հոդվածը: Մեծ հարգանքով եմ վերաբերվում այն բանին, որ Աշոտ Բլեյանը, ունենալով մանկավաժական՝ մյուսներից տարբերվող գաղափարներ ու ծրագրեր, կարողանում է ժամանկի ընթացքում գտնել իր պես մտածող մարդիկ և նրանց հետ ստեղծել կրթահամալիրը: Կարծում եմ, որ այսպիսի դպրոց ստեղծելու գաղափարը շատ լավն է և կարևոր է այնքանով, որ կա այդպիսի դպրոց, որտեղ կարող են սովորել այնպիսի աշակերտներ, որոնց հարազատ է հենց այդ միջավայրը:

Բայց կարծում եմ, որ գաղափարի իրականացումը դեռևս թերի է, քանի որ կան ուսուցիչներ, ովքեր իրեց մեջ չեն կրում Աշոտ Բլեյանի մանկավարժության վերաբերյալ ունեցած հայացքները: Ավելի շուտ որպես պարտականություն և աշխատանք են դա կատարում, քան թե որպես մանկավարժություն:

Ոչ շատ հայտնի, կարևոր և հետաքրքիր պատմական կերպարներ // Wojtek The Bear

220px-Polish_Soldier_in_Iran_wojtek

Yes, you read that correctly.  Wojtek was a 220 kilogram brown bear that was essentially adopted by the 22nd Transport Company’s Artillery Division in the Polish 2nd Corps, and served as a morale booster to the troops during World War II.

It began in the Alborz Mountains of northern Iran when a brown bear cub was orphaned by hunters who shot his mother. He was later found and adopted by a young Kurdish boy.

Then on April 8, 1942 the boy and the bear cub met a group of Polish soldiers, who were being transported from a Siberian gulag through the Middle East to Alexandra, Egypt. By then, the growing bear cub looked tired and hungry. The soldiers felt sorry for him, they themselves knowing what it was like to be tired and hungry. So, they collectively decided to buy the bear off of they boy using what little they had at the time.

The bear spent the next three months in the Polish refugee camp that was established near TehranIn. In August the bear was donated to the 2nd Transport Company, which later became the 22nd Artillery Supply Company, and he was given the name Wojtek (pronounced Voitek) by the soldiers, which means “Happy Warrior”.

wojtek_niedzwiedz_1Wojtek initially had problems swallowing and was fed condensed milk from an old vodka bottle. He was subsequently given fruit, marmalade, honey and syrup, and was often rewarded with beer, which became his favourite drink. He later also enjoyed smoking (or eating) cigarettes. He loved wrestling with the soldiers and was taught to salute when greeted. Wojtek became quite an attraction for soldiers and civilians alike, and soon became an unofficial mascot of all units stationed nearby.

As the Polish Army came closer to entering the war zone in Italy in 1943, the soldiers pondered the problem of Wojtek’s status, in that if he was to continue to accompany them, they’d be bringing him to the front line. This problem came to a head in 1944 in Egypt when the soldiers were headed to Naples.  The port authorities refused to let the bear board the ship.

They solved the problem by giving Wojtek his own paybook, rank and serial number.  They even taught him how to salute like a proper soldier.  After the paperwork was filed, he was officially a member of the Polish Army in the 22nd Artillery Supply Company of the Polish II Corps, and he was now allowed on the ship.

wojtekbadge2Wojtek soon proved he was more than just a mascot when, during the series of assaults known as the  Battle of Monte Cassino, he put his strength to good use after being trained to carry heavy crates filled with mortar shells from the supply trucks, delivering them to the men operating the large guns on the front line.

After the battle, a likeness of Wojtek holding a shell became the official badge of the 22nd Transport Company. The image was put on vehicles, flags and uniforms.

At the end of the war, about 3,000 Polish soldiers and their bear ended up being stationed in Berwickshire, Scotland for nearly two years. As the soldiers were demobilized in 1947 and sent home, they said some heart wrenching goodbyes to Wojtek.

After World War II, in 1945, Wojtek was transported to Berwickshire, Scotland, with the rest of the 22nd Company. They were stationed at Winfield Airfield on Sunwick Farm, near the village of Hutton, Scottish Borders. Wojtek soon became popular among local civilians and the press, and the Polish-Scottish Association made him an honorary member.

Following demobilization on 15 November 1947, Wojtek was given to the Edinburgh Zoo, where he spent the rest of his life, often visited by journalists and former Polish soldiers, some of whom would toss him cigarettes, which he proceeded to eat because there was no one there to light them for him.

The bear died in 1963, at the age of 22, partially from damage to his esophagus caused by swallowing lit cigarettes.

 

Sources:

http://time.com/4731787/wojtek-the-bear-history/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wojtek_(bear)

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-15736812

https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/wojtek-bear-named-second-world-war-film-polish-soldiers-monte-cassino-snowman-private-army-carried-a8553001.html

http://www.todayifoundout.com/index.php/2013/09/bear-member-polish-army-wwii/

 

 

 

 

Ենթամշակույթ

Subculture is a cultural group within a larger culture, often having beliefs or interests at variance with those of the larger culture.

Ենթամշակույթը մեծ մշակույթի կամ երկրի ժողովուրդի մեջ գտնվող խմբեր, որոնք ունեն հավատքներ կամ հետաքրքրություններ որոնք տարբերվում են հիմնական կամ գլխավոր մշակույթից:

Some examples:

Emos, goths, cosplayers, furries, hippies, bronies, punks, metalheads, gamers, otakus, kpopers, nudists, skaters, queers and much more.

Punk Subculture

Punk subculture includes a very diverse array of fashion, ideologies, music, visual art and many other forms of expression

The punk subculture emerged in the United Kingdom, Australia, and the United States in the mid-1970s. Exactly which region originated punk has long been a matter of controversy within the movement. Since its inception, punk has spread out over the world and it still interests many minds of teenagers.

Punk ethos generally includes anti-authoritarianism, a do-it-yourself ethic, non-conformity, direct action and not “selling out”.

And despite the bad name punks have received, likely because of their appearance, in its original incarnation, the punk subculture originated out of working class angst and the frustrations many youth were feeling about economic inequality and the bourgeois hypocrisy and neglect of working people and their struggles. It was primarily concerned with concepts such as pro working-class, egalitarianism, humanitarianism, anti-nationalism, anti-authoritarianism, anti-corporatism, anti-war, anti-racism, anti-sexism, gender equality, racial equality, civil rights, animal rights, disability rights, free-thought and non-conformity. So all sorts of good stuff.

One of its main tenets was a rejection of mainstream, corporate mass culture and its values. It continued to evolve its ideology as the movement spread throughout North America from its origins in England and New York and embrace a range anti-racist and anti-sexist belief systems.

Arguably, the most important aspect of punk is music. Punk music is called punk rock, sometimes shortened to punk. Most punk rock is a specific style of the rock music genre, though punk musicians sometimes incorporate elements from other genres. Punk subcultures often distinguish themselves by having a unique style of punk rock, though not every style of punk rock has its own associated subculture. Most punk rock involves simple arrangements, short songs and lyrics that espouse punk values. Punk rock is usually played in bands, as opposed to solo artists.

Punk itself, like many of the bigger subcultures also has it’s own subgenres, including: glam punk, garage punk, art punk, christian punk, anarcho punk, etc.

Sources:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Punk_subculture

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Punk_ideologies

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_punk_subculture

http://counterculture.wikia.com/wiki/Punk_subculture

Ոչ շատ հայտնի, կարևոր և հետաքրքիր պատմական կերպարներ // Ching Shih

Ching ShihChing Shih was a notorious and powerful female pirate, who during her active years as a pirate lord in the early 19thcentury, was in command of the infamous Red Flag Fleet that consisted of over 1800 ships and 80000 male and female pirates. Under her rule, Chinese pirates became invincible, resisting attacks from every major naval power of her time.

She was born in 1775 in the Guangdong province of China in the period of the Qing dynasty. Her birth name was Shi Yang. Some other accounts list her birth name as Shil Xiang Gu or Shil Gang Xu.

She was a prostitute in a floating brothel in the city of Canton (Guangzhou) in China. Her nickname as a prostitute was Shi Xianggu.

She rose to notoriety in her home city for her intelligence, business acumen, capacity for intrigues, and trading in confidential information.

In 1801, when she was 26 years old, she caught the eye of notorious pirate Cheng I (Zheng Yi) whom she agreed to marry under the condition that she would have half of the control and share over her husband’s piracy business. At the time of their marriage, Zheng Yi had about two hundred pirate ships and was one of the major pirates of the region.

There are varying accounts of how they actually came to be together. According to some, Zheng Yi sent a raid and ordered them to plunder the brothel. He asked that they bring him Ching Shih, his favorite prostitute. The men did as they were ordered, and Zheng Yi and Ching Shih were married. By other accounts, Zheng Yi simply asked Ching Shih to marry him.

With Ching Shih by his side, Zheng Yi’s fleet grew. The Red Flag Fleet went from having 200 ships, to more than 600, and eventually reaching up to 1700-1800 ships.

Zheng Yi died in 1807, only 6 years after marrying Ching Shih. At the time of his death, the Red Flag Fleet included approximately 50,000 – 70,000 pirates. Ching Shih, not wanting to go back to a life of prostitution, decided to take over the fleet, knowing that this was her opportunity to become a powerful pirate lord. Zheng Yi and Cheng Shih had adopted a son, Chang Pao, who was Zheng Yi’s second in command. He could have taken over his father’s position; however, Ching Shih craved the power and glory of being the leader of the Red Flag Fleet. With Chang Pao’s support, Ching Shih took charge.

Under her rule Red Flag Fleet flourished. Their incredible strength and power enabled them to pillage and raid every town and ship between Macao to Canton. In addition to controlling the fleet, she also controlled every aspect of the organization’s business. Many stories from that time describe her as ruthless – not only to her victims but even to her crew (executions were not uncommon). Fear that she inflicted to the pirate crew was so great that she had the final word in every raid decision, and all captured wealth were presented to her before dividing it to the surviving pirates.

Harsh capital punishment was common for pirates of the Red Flag Fleet who did not stick to the code. Deserters would be hunted down, and their ears cut off when captured. Other punishments included flogging, quartering, and clapping in irons.

Ching Shih’s fleet took leadership over many coastal villages, sometimes even imposing levies and taxes on the villages. These coastal villages stretched from Macau to Canton. Ching Shih was called “The Terror of South China,” and she would cruelly punish those who resisted her by nailing their feet to her ship’s deck and beating them. Chinese, Portugese, and British naval ships were all lost to Ching Shih’s fleet. Because it appeared she could not be defeated, the Chinese issued an amnesty to all pirates for all pirates who were willing to return to the shore as free citizens, hoping to eliminate Ching Shih’s reign over the sea. She took advantage of this and negotiated pardon for herself and the vast majority of her fleet (while even retaining all her wealth).

Ching Shih spent the remainder of her life operating her gambling house until her death in 1844, at the age of 69 in Guangzhou.

 

Sources:

https://www.ancient-origins.net/history-famous-people/ching-shih-prostitute-pirate-lord-002582

http://www.annebonnypirate.com/famous-female-pirates/ching-shih/

https://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/ching-shih-41396.php

https://allthatsinteresting.com/ching-shih-pirate

Սբ. թարգմանիչ Վարդապետների՝ Մեսրոպի, Եղիշեի, Մովսես Քերթողի, Դավիթ Անհաղթ փիլիսոփայի, Գրիգոր Նարեկացու և Ներսես Կլայեցու տոն

1979 թվականից սկսած, երեք տարին մեկ անգամ, հոկտեմբերի երկրորդ շաբաթ օրը նշվում է թարգմանական արվեստի տոնը: Այս տոնը նվիրված է հայ թարգմանիչների հիշատակին, այսինքն՝ Սահակին և Մեսրոպ Մաշտոցին ու նրանց աշակերտներին: Թարգմանիչների հիշատակը  Հայ եկեղեցին տոնում է տարին երկու անգամ: Ս. Մեսրոպն առաջին անգամ թարգմանում է Ս. Գրքի հետևյալ տողը. «Ճանաչել զիմաստութիւն և զխրատ, իմանալ զբանս հանճարոյ», որը վերցրել էր Սողոմոնի «Առակաց» գրքից: Ս. Սահակի և Ս. Մեսրոպի շնորհիվ Հայաստանում բացվում են դպրոցներ, ուր ուսուցանվում են հայ գրերը: Նրանք իրենց աշակերտների հատ նախևառաջ թարգմանում են Աստվածաշունչը՝ ասորերենից և հունարենից: Թարգմանությունը այնքան կատարյալ էր, որ մինչ այսօր համարվում է«Թարգմանությունների թագուհի»:

Հնագույն և միջնադարյան հայերեն թարգմանությունները մեծ արժեք են ներկայացնում նաև համաշխարհային մշակույթի համար որովհետև դրանց սկզբնական աղբյուրները կորել են, և պահպանվել է միայն հայերեն տարբերակը: Թարգմանչական գործը շարունակվել է նաև միջնադարում, թարգմանություններ են կատարվել վրացերենից, պարսկերենից, հին ֆրանսերենից, թուրքերենից, ռուսերենից, անգլերենից, իտալերենից, լեհերենից և իսպաներենից։ Թարգմանիչներն ունեն նաև իրենց նվիրված միջազգային տոն, որը նշվում է սեպտեմբերի 30-ին։ Այն հիմնականում առնչվում է Սուրբ Ջերոմի՝ 4-5դդ. հռոմեացի քրիստոնյա գիտնականի հետ, որին Հռոմի կաթոլիկ եկեղեցին սրբացրել է՝ Աստվածաշունչը եբրայերենից լատիներեն թարգմանելու համար։ Այդ թարգմանությունը համարվում է բնօրինակին ամենամոտը:

Nellie Bly

Nellie BlyNellie Bly is most well known for her pioneering journalism. Including when she exposed the poor conditions of asylum patients at Blackwell’s Island in New York City and her report of her 72-day trip around the world.

She was born Elizabeth Cochran on May 5, 1864, in Cochran’s Mills, Pennsylvania. Nellie Bly began writing for the Pittsburgh Dispatch in 1885. Two years later, in 1987, Bly moved to New York City and began working for the New York World.

One of Bly’s earliest assignments was to author a piece detailing the experiences endured by patients of the infamous mental institution on Blackwell’s Island (now called Roosevelt Island) in New York City. In an effort to accurately expose the conditions at the asylum, she pretended to be a mental patient in order to be committed to the facility, where she lived for 10 days.

Bly’s work was published in the World soon after her return to reality. It was a massive success. The piece shed light on a number of disturbing conditions at the facility, including neglect and physical abuse. This ultimately spurred a large-scale investigation of the institution.

Bly went on to gain even more fame by traveling around the world in 72 days and reporting on her experiences. This trip was inspired by the book “Around the world in Eighty Days” by Jules Verne. She wanted to beat the fictional record, set by Phileas Fogg, the main character of the novel.